## BioLogic Essential and Premium range of potentiostat / galvanostats

### Powerful, intuitive software. The perfect combination.

#### A single or multichannel potentiostat for every application. Whatever your area of expertise.

Whether you work in Science or industry, BioLogic’s comprehensive portfolio of potentiostats has been built to answer the individual needs of users across a wide range of domains. So whether your area of expertise lies in energy or corrosion, material characterization, or bio-molecular electrochem­istry – we will have a potentiostat to match your specific needs.

#### At a Glance: What is a potentiostat / galvanostat? Which applications require potentiostats?

A potentiostat / galvanostat (sometimes called an electrochemical workstation) is an instrument that manages the application of voltage or current to an electrochemical cell electrode. The potentiostat is the main measurement tool used in electrochemical and electroanalytical experiments. Potentiostats are vital measurement and control tools used primarily in electrochemical research, as well as in other industrial fields. In electrochemistry, potentiostats are used in both fundamental and applied research to understand electrode processes, analytical chemistry, battery research, and corrosion research. Secondary applications include chemical synthesis and biology.

For detailed information about the history, design and development of potentiostats together with information about how they work and the scientific and industrial applications where they are used, please visit our Learning Centre article: How potentiostats work and their role in science and industry.

#### Essential and Premium potentiostats: An instrument for every possible need

BioLogic’s potentiostat / galvanostats (sometimes referred to as Electrochemical Workstations) are available in two product ranges:

#### Essential potentiostats

Modular, durable, single and multi-channel potentiostats designed to meet both classical and demand­ing electrochemical research needs. The Essential range of potentiostats features EIS up to 1 MHz, a current range from 1 A down to 10 μA, with the possibility of extending up to 800 A and down to 1 nA with options. No compromise has been made on quality in this range driven by EC-Lab® software, the same control interface that drives BioLogic’s Premium range.

The Premium range of potentiostat-galvanostats has been designed to meet the needs of users working on the most demanding possible research applications. It boasts state-of-the-art specifications including 7 MHz EIS, a current and voltage range from 10 μ A to 100 A and 10 to 60 V respectively, together with a sampling rate that can reach 1 data point every μs. Built-in calibration guarantees consistent, high-per­formance over the life of the potentiostat and built-in EIS quality indicators give you the peace of mind that only comes from validated results.

And these potentiostats are versatile. They can be configured as single potentio­stat / galvanostats, bipotentiostats or multichannel potentiostats.

### Why choose BioLogic potentiostat / galvanostats?

#### Versatile, scalable potentiostat galvanostats

• Scalable, future proof potentiostats: modular design ensures that potentiostats grow with your research needs (upgradable in-situ)
• Modify on the fly: Unique to EC-Lab software, build your experiment as you go, no need to plan

#### Potentiostat control & analysis: Powerful, user-friendly interface

• EC-Lab software: unparalleled data analysis and potentiostat control in an intuitive, smooth, multi-function software package
• Total, centralized control: No additional modules or bolt-on software packages for data analysis.
• A world leader in interface design: capitalize on 25 years of R&D expertise in potentiostat design

#### Innovative product features

• Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) functionality as standard with all BioLogic potentiostat / galvanostats, available up to 7 MHz, with current from 1 A down to 10 μA
• EIS Quality Indicators: Validate your potentiostats simply, quickly, and easily: BioLogic is the only supplier to use quantitative, rather than qualitative information to generate its quality indicators, resulting in information that is more precise, more trustworthy.
• Second voltage measurement (measure the voltage of the negative electrode)
• High-speed shift (fastest available): Unique design enables an ultra-fast shift from Galvanostat mode to potentiostat mode, avoiding any tran­sient phenomena on the battery.
• Connect your  potentiostat to your Local Area Network (LAN) via Ethernet: facilitates group working and control of multi-channel potentiostats
• Multi-electrode measurements with a dedicated connection mode (CE to GND mode).

## Innovation comes as standard with BioLogic potentiostats

#### Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) quality indicators: THD, NSD, NSR

EIS Quality Indicators enable scientists to quantitatively assess the quality and the validity of their impedance measurements when using their potentiostat. Only BioLogic offers three Quality Indicators:

• Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) quantifies the linearity of the response,
• Non-Stationary Distortion (NSD) indicates the effect of time-variance and transient regime,
• Noise to Signal Ratio (NSR) ensures the signal is large enough compared to the measurement noise.

#### No need to plan ahead – Modify on-the-fly with the EC-Lab potentiostat interface

Only EC-Lab, BioLogic renowned potentiostat control software, enables users to build and modify experiments incrementally with “modify on-the-fly” as well as give users the choice to plan their experiment from a vast array of technical presets.

#### CE to ground

CE to ground mode, unique to BioLogic potentiostat galvanostats, enables users to choose from independent channel or multi-electrode configurations and LAN connectivity to improve multi-user working.

#### Other energy-specific functionality unique to BioLogic’s potentiostats includes:

• Fast CCCV shift (constant current, constant voltage)
• Stack mode (follow individual elements in the pack)
• BCD (Battery capacity determination)
• Automatic plotting for Coloumbic efficiency

And much more…

### A configuration for every possible application

Single-channel potentiostats
Five single-channel potentiostats are available from the simple, user-friendly SP-50 to the powerful research-grade SP-300.

SP-50e/SP-50SP-150e/SP-150SP-200SP-240SP-300
User-friendly potentiostat designed to address general electrochemistry & corrosion applications amongst othersA versatile, high-specification, research grade potentiostat / galvanostat that can be modified for EISThe perfect electrochemical workstation for corrosion with the 100 fA accuracy ultra-low current optionA powerful, research grade, potentiostat offering a current range of up to 4 Amps.A state-of-the-art research grade potentiostat with a 500 mA to 10 A range , built-in EIS and many other high-end specifications

Bi-potentiostats:  BioLogic BP-300, BioLogic SP-300

Two bipots are available (BP-300, SP-300) for synchronized dual-channel use and for controlling ancillary instruments such as RRDE (rotating ring disk electrode), IDA (electroanalytical), or SECM (scanning electrochemical microscope).

BP-300SP-300SP-150e
A versatile potentiostat capable of generating any bipot measurement, such as Rotating Ring Disk Electrode (RRDE) and InterDigitated Array (IDA) electrodes.A state-of-the-art research grade potentiostat with a 500 mA to 10 A range , built-in EIS and many other high-end specifications An ampere capable potentiostat boasting high-current capability (800 A with boosters), 3 EIS Quality Indicators (THD, NSD, NSR) for EIS validation and Ethernet compatibility.

What is the difference between single-channel and multichannel potentiostats?  The following article may be of interest Multichannel & Single-channel potentiostats – what’s the difference?

#### Biologic Multichannel potentiostats

Multichannel potentiostats feature up to 16 channels to measure 16 electrochemical cells in parallel, thereby increasing research throughput. BioLogic’s proprietary CE to ground mode enables the implementation of multi-electrode measurements (several electrochemical cells in the same bath).

VSPVSP-3eVMP3VMP-3eVSP-300VMP-300
5 channels8 channels16 channels16 channels6 Channels16 Channels
EIS measurement from 10 µHz to 1 MHz, Current ranging from 10 μA up to 1 AEight channel potentiostat / galvanostat with +/- 1A (expandable up to 800A); Ethernet connectivity, Built-in EISIncludes low current measurement, impedance and high current capability via plug-in modules.
16 channel electrochemical workstation with 1 A (extendable to 800 A) current capability as well as EIS Quality Indicators. Perfect for battery research/testingPerfect for group working this potentiostat can be connected to a LAN and controlled independently by multiple usersEIS capability up to 7 MHz and ultra low current sensitivity with the ULC option

## How do potentiostats work? Operational principles...

#### The three-electrode setup and control of potential

A potentiostat is a measurement tool dedicated to studying electrochemical processes. Correct control of the interfacial working electrode potential is essential to guarantee that current is measured at a constant potential. The three-electrode setup makes this possible.

The three electrodes in this setup are known as the working, reference, and counter-electrodes (also called the auxiliary electrode).

 The working electrode (WE): The reaction of interest occurs at the interface of the working electrode. The reference electrode (RE): The potential of the reference electrode is well-known and stable. It is the point of reference of the system for potential control and measurement. The current flow through this electrode is kept close to zero. The counter-electrode (CE): The current flows between the working electrode and the counter-electrode. The counter-electrode has no role in electrochemical reactions except for specific situations: battery cell, galvanic corrosion, electrochemical noise measurements.

To ensure that currents flows as a result of potential variations at the working electrode interface, the potential of the reference electrode has to remain stable and correspond to its theoretical value. The reference electrode of a potentiostat must be properly maintained. (see Checking and Validating reference electrodes).

The control amplifier (CA) is a key electronic component in the potentiostat. It is used to manage the voltage between the reference electrode and the working electrode as close as possible to the voltage of the input source  $E_{\mathrm{i}}$.

The potentiostat circuit diagram below shows the position of the control amplifier in a simplified design of a modern potentiostat [1].

#### Circuit diagram for a simple potentiostat design

The potential measured at the reference electrode is fed to the control amplifier’s negative input. This results in a loop known as the “negative feedback loop”. This loop allows the control amplifier to adapt its output and maintain a potential difference corresponding to $E_{\mathrm{i}}$.  This enables the potentiostat to control precisely the voltage signal and reach the correct setpoint value. See BioLogic Application Note #04: “The mystery of potentiostat stability explained”.

### Function modes: Potentiostatic and galvanostatic modes.

#### Potentiostatic & Galvanostatic control: What is the difference between potentiostatic and galvanostatic mode?

Potentiostatic mode is used to measure and control  difference in voltage between the working and  reference electrode, which must have a constant potential. Potentiostatic mode is the most commonly used mode in a  potentiostat. Potentiostatic mode measures the current flow between the working electrode and counter electrode (completing the cell circuit). See schematic below:

#### Potentiostatic mode: principles

Galvanostatic mode is based on the control of current flowing through the system. When the device is used for these measurements it is called a galvanostat. The most common application for galvanostatic mode is research into batteries.

A “voltage ramp” is often applied, where voltage is added incrementally (a potentiodynamic technique). The most popular technique is known as Cyclic Voltammetry (or CV for short). Cyclic Voltammetry is a fast and easy means of understanding the complete behavior of an electrochemical system (see the Learning Centre article Cyclic Voltammetry: how to obtain great results with your potentiostat).

The techniques most commonly used in corrosion and analytical electrochemistry are based around the potentiostatic mode.

Galvanostatic mode centers on the control of the current flowing through the electrochemical system. When the instrument is used for these measurements it is known a galvanostat. Battery research is the most common application where galvanostatic mode is used.