A versatile stopped-flow mixing system designed to offer extreme precision as well as minimize the consumption of often expensive samples.
A range of single, double or triple stopped-flow mixing systems designed to ensure the shortest possible dead time.
The stopped-flow mixing system offering accuracy, precision, and versatility
A stopped-flow mixing system is an essential instrument for rapid kinetics investigations. A complete stopped-flow instrument is a mixing device coupled to a detection system. Two, three or four sample solutions are rapidly mixed and injected into an observation cell. When the flow is stopped, the kinetics are recorded with a detector chosen according to the chemical properties of the solutions and the information of interest (e.g. particle size, the environment of fluorophore, chromophore).
The SFM-4000 stopped-flow series is available for single, double or triple mixing applications (two reaction steps or one reaction step and one concentration change step before the final observed reaction). The SFM-4000 stopped-flow family has been designed to ensure the shortest possible dead time the highest precision and to minimize sample consumption as much as possible.
Applications include protein folding/refolding, protein-protein interactions, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), ligand binding, water and ion transport in vesicles and membranes, enzyme/substrate reactions, coordination reactions in inorganic chemistry, as well as identification or capture of intermediates, and more. Virtually any application with a timescale in the range of 0.5 ms. to minutes is observable by our stopped-flow systems. The same stopped-flow mixers can be used with chemical quench or freeze quench accessories to collect time point samples for EPR, NMR, Mossbauer, or GC/MS analysis when the reaction has no appropriate optical signature.
Free mixing ratio change
Mixing ratios can be freely changed by the user because our stopped-flow mixers use independent stepping motor technology. This technology provides microliter precision and accuracy at all flow rates, over a wide viscosity, temperature, and mixing ratio range. The user has a full control of volume, speed and mixing ratio from within Biokine software. A series of shots at various concentration can be programmed and run quickly without refilling or changing syringes. Advanced Berger-Ball technology mixers are used to provide the best turbulent mixing over the widest range of flow conditions.
Short dead time
With our SFM series technology, it is possible to achieve sub-microsecond dead times for following kinetics with a rate constant up to 3500 s-1. The standard dead time reachable by our SFM-4000 family systems is 700 µs, and 200µs is possible using the optional microcuvette for the most demanding applications. This extremely low dead time is achievable thanks to the precision drive mechanism and the quality of the stop mechanism. Quench flow and freeze quench applications have minimum ageing times of 2 ms.
The stopped-flow is easily adaptable to a wide variety of rapid mixing techniques and applications. The unique design is based on open access to the mixing chamber and the use of independent stepping motor technology. Therefore, the stopped-flow system can be switched from optical stopped-flow to chemical quench-flow, to freeze quench, to cryo stopped-flow to a beamline, to laboratory designed optical benches, all in minutes, with off the shelf options. A range of off-the-shelf accessories enables you to adapt the SFM-series to your specific needs in the lab, without buying a complete new system. Additionally, our R&D team provides special development services to customize the stopped-flow system and produce bespoke systems to meet your specific needs and applications.
10 years warranty
Bio-Logic offers a 10 years warranty on the stepping motors. Our 10 years warranty reflects our confidence in the high quality of our design, engineering, and product performance.
Bio-Logic instruments are designed to be future-proof. They are instruments that will withstand the tests of time, the rigors of the laboratory and the ever-increasing demands of your research.
Bio-Kine is user-friendly software that controls the stopped-flow, the detection device, follows the acquisition, and analyzes data.
Single mixing applications
Two levels of operation are provided for mixer control. The first level is designed for rapid and easy experiment design. The user sets the mixing ratio, the size of the cuvette and the volume of samples. Color coded windows display calculated values and alert the user to out of range conditions. The estimated dead time is automatically displayed, and a pre-trigger is also available to be sure the stationary state is reached accurately. This interface is ideal for routine mixing designs, occasional users, or students.
- Mixing ratio from 1:1 to 1:100
- Exact control of flow rate
- User-selectable syringe volumes
- 2, 3 or 4 independently controlled syringes and 1, 2 or 3 mixers
- Dead time down to 200µs with the microvolume cuvette
- Fully variable mixing ratio from 1:1 to 1:100
- Sample Economy
- Automated concentration dependence studies and double mixing
- Standard Stopped-Flow configuration for all optical mode : absorbance, fluorescence, circular dichroism, fluorescence anisotropy.
- A range of observation cuvettes
- Exact control of flow rate
- Extended temperature range
Monitoring the binding of metal cations and histones to DNA in real time using fluorescence assays
Millisecond-to-Minute Protein Folding/Misfolding Events Monitored by FTIR Spectroscopy
The N-terminal Helix Controls the Transition between the Soluble and Amyloid States of an FF Domain
Early Folding Events Protect Aggregation-Prone Regions of a β-Rich Protein
Direct observation of a force-induced switch in the anisotropic mechanical unfolding pathway of a protein
Contribution of Disulfide Bonds to Stability, Folding, and Amyloid Fibril Formation: The PI3-SH3 Domain Case
Synthesis, characterization, and DNA-binding of enantiomers of iron(II) Schiff base complexes
Kinetics of Ligand-Receptor Interaction Reveals an Induced-Fit Mode of Binding in a Cyclic Nucleotide-Activated Protein
CIL-102 binds to tubulin at colchicine binding site and triggers apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by inducing monopolar and multinucleated cells
Kinetics of thermo-induced micelle-to-vesicle transitions in a catanionic surfactant system investigated by stopped-flow temperature jump
Tuning a Polar Molecule for Selective Cytoplasmic Delivery by a pH (Low) Insertion Peptide
Rupture of Pluronic Micelles by Di-Methylated β-Cyclodextrin Is Not Due to Polypseudorotaxane Formation
Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects of Coassembly of PEO–PMAA Block Copolymer and DPCl Surfactants into Ordered Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solutions Studied by ITC, NMR, and Time-Resolved SAXS Techniques
Kinetics of Collapse Transition and Cluster Formation in a Thermoresponsive Micellar Solution of P(S-b-NIPAM-b-S) Induced by a Temperature Jump
Interaction of reduced lysozyme with surfactants: Disulfide effects on reformed structure in micelles
CpeS Is a Lyase Specific for Attachment of 3Z-PEB to Cys82 of β-phycoerythrin from Prochlorococcus marinus MED4
Distinctactions of cis and trans ATP within the double ring of the chaperonin GroEL
Opening the periplasmic cavity in lactose permease is the limiting step for sugar binding
A Single Mutation in a Tunnel to the Active Site Changes the Mechanism and Kinetics of Product Release in Haloalkane Dehalogenase LinB
Visible Light-Driven O2 Reduction by a Porphyrin–Laccase System
Distinct Unfolding and Refolding Pathways of Ribonuclease A Revealed by Heating and Cooling Temperature Jumps
Enzyme Kinetics above Denaturation Temperature: A Temperature-Jump/Stopped-Flow Apparatus
Revealing transient structures of nucleosomes as DNA unwinds
An advanced EPR stopped-flow apparatus based on a dielectric ring resonator
Metabolic stability of superoxide adducts derived from newly developed cyclic nitrone spin traps
Formation Kinetics of Oil-Rich, Nonionic Microemulsions
Rapid mixing stopped-flow small-angle X-ray scattering study of lipoplex formation at beamline ID02@ESRF
Salt-induced cluster formation of gold nanoparticles followed by stopped-flow SAXS, DLS and extinction spectroscopy
Complexation of short ds RNA/DNA oligonucleotides with Gemini micelles: a time resolved SAXS and computational study
Kinetic and mechanistic aspects of selenite oxidation by chlorine, bromine, monochloramine, ozone, permanganate, and hydrogen peroxide
Importance of Transmembrane Segment M1 of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase in Ca2+ Occlusion and Phosphoenzyme Processing
Functional asymmetry for the active sites of linked 5-aminolevulinate synthase and 8-amino-7-oxononanoate synthase
Transient interactions of a slow-folding protein with the Hsp70 chaperone machinery
Kinetic studies of the yeast His-Asp phosphorelay signaling pathway
The Aquaporin TcAQP1 of the Desert Truffle Terfezia claveryi Is a Membrane Pore for Water and CO2 Transport
Aquaporin OsPIP1;1 promotes rice salt resistance and seed germination
Function of a separate NH3-pore in Aquaporin TIP2;2 from wheat
Pore selectivity analysis of an aquaglyceroporin by stopped-flow spectrophotometry on bacterial cell suspensions
An electrokinetic approach to fabricating aquaporin biomimetic membranes for water purification
Formate–nitrite transporters carrying nonprotonatable amide amino acids instead of a central histidine maintain pH-dependent transport
Arginine‐95 is important for recruiting superoxide to the active site of the FerB flavoenzyme of Paracoccus denitrificans
Organochlorine Formation in Tertiary Amine Catalyzed Pulp Bleaching
Measuring Intracellular Ca Changes in Human Sperm using Four Techniques: Conventional Fluorometry, Stopped Flow Fluorometry, Flow Cytometry and Single Cell Imaging
RK-Spectro Technical Note 85: SFM-X000 used in anaerobic conditions_ loading of instrument
RK-Spectro Technical Note 81: Single wavelength kinetic using MOS-500 in absorbance mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 80: Single wavelength kinetic using MOS-500 in fluorescence mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 79: Single wavelength kinetics experiment using MOS-500 in CD mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 76: Single wavelength kinetics experiment using MOS200 in fluorescence mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 73: Determination of your experimental dead time in fluorescence mode using μFC-08 and SFM-4000/S
RK-Spectro Technical Note 64: Single wavelength kinetics experiment using MOS200 in absorbance mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 63: Single wavelength kinetic of cytochrome c in fluorescence mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 62: Dead time determination using DCIP and acid ascorbic with the microcuvette μFC-08
RK-Spectro Technical Note 61: Anisotropy T- format using MOS-200/M and an additional PMS-250
RK-Spectro Technical Note 60: X-ray head
RK-Spectro Technical Note 59: Single wavelength kinetics experiment using MOS200M_CD in CD mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 57: Single wavelength kinetic using J715-720 and Bio-Kine in fluorescence mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 56: Single wavelength kinetics using J715-720 and Bio-Kine32 in CD mode-reaction 2
RK-Spectro Technical Note 55: Single wavelength kinetics using J715-720 and Bio-Kine32 in CD mode-reaction 1
RK-Spectro Technical Note 54: Determination of your experimental dead time in fluorescence mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 53: Determination of your experimental dead time in fluorescence mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 52: Designing double mixing quench flow experiments
RK-Spectro Technical Note 50: Global mode experiment using MOS-200M in absorbance mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 49: Determination of minimum washing volume for the microcuvette (mFC-08)
RK-Spectro Technical Note 47: Installation of SFMX00 on the J810 spectropolarimeter with advanced mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 46: Installation of SFM-X00 on the J810 spectropolarimeter
RK-Spectro Technical Note 43: Ageing methods for long time reaction using MPS software and biokine up to the version 4.04
RK-Spectro Technical Note 39: Determination of the minimal ageing time for each delay line
RK-Spectro Technical Note 38: Anisotropy T-format using MOS250 and two additional channels
RK-Spectro Technical Note 37: Anisotropy T-format using MOS200 and an additional PMS250
RK-Spectro Technical Note 36: DNPA hydrolysis using the low temperature accessory
RK-Spectro Technical Note 34: Design of stopped flow sequence, determination of minimum washing volume
RK-Spectro Technical Note 31: Determination of your experimental dead time in absorbance mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 18: Create a stopped-flow sequence using MPS32 software
RK-Spectro Technical Note 15: Single wavelength kinetics experiment using MOS450_AF-CD in CD and Fluorescence mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 14: Single wavelength kinetics experiment using MOS450 AF-CD in CD mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 13: Single wavelength kinetics experiment using MOS450_AF-CD in anisotropy mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 12: Single wavelength kinetics experiment using MOS450_AF or AF-CD in fluorescence mode
RK-Spectro Technical Note 11: Single wavelength kinetics experiment using MOS 450_AF or AF-CD in absorbance mode
Hierarchical assembly pathways of spermine induced tubulin conical-spiral architectures
pH stability and disassembly mechanism of wild-type simian virus 40
Spin state and reactivity of iron(iv)oxido complexes with tetradentate bispidine ligands
The following accessories are relevant to the SFM series:
mT Jump System
Umbilical link for external coupling of Stopped-flow
Titration accessory for stopped-flow and spectroscopy
Single and double mixing Quench-Flow
Optical Quench Flow and Optical Delay Line
Are your sample volumes severely restricted?
Do you struggle to manage volume samples for reasons of cost or availability? The following instrument will be highly relevant to your needs...
The following topics are relevant to these instruments: