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Galvanostatic Cycling with Potential limitation 4: Low Earth Orbit (LEO) battery satellite protocol (GITT#2) – Battery – Application Note 3

Latest updated: August 31, 2021


In most battery testing using CCCV (CC-CV) charging schedule, the first step is limited in cell voltage, and the second step is either limited in time, drop of current or total charge passed. But there are certain applications that have a very distinct time limit for the battery to charge, like in aerospace in Low Earth Orbit, or geostationary satellite applications. This GCPL4 technique available with any Bio-Logic potentiostat-galvanostat-ZRA or battery cycler, performs CCCV charge with a the time limit pertaining to the entire charge (or discharge) sequence.



The aim of this paper is to describe an application for the GCPL 4 protocol in the field of battery testing. This protocol is available with EC-lab software and can be used with all our instruments.

This galvanostatic cycling protocol has a different timing from the previous GCPL protocol, in that the total duration of every sequence is defined, independently, from the fact that at a given time during the step, the maximum potential can be reached and the instrument turns from the initial galvanostatic mode to a constant potential one.

By way of comparison, in GCPL and GCPL-3, the initial galvanostatic mode run for a maximum time (t1) and if a potential limit (WE-RE in GCPL, WE-CE in GCPL-3) is reached in that time, the duration of the constant potential mode that follows is either set to a given time ™ or limited by the condition for the redox current to be lower than a given value. In GCPL-2, if a potential limit is reached on the galvanostatic sequence, the system switches to the next step without any constant potential sequence.


To view the entire application note please click the download button below.

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